Usually understood to refer to the Jewish Christian opponents of Paul's mission to the Gentiles. Judaizers demanded that converts should submit to the full rigour of the Jewish Law as a precondition of Christian baptism (Gal. 2:14).
It has been thought that Paul also had opponents in Corinth and Philippi, who argued for the same policy, but it is equally possible that the opponents were Gentiles attracted to Judaism.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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